May 24 , 2022
Delusions, hallucinations, difficulty thinking or concentrating, and a lack of desire are all signs of schizophrenia, a chronic brain condition. Around 21 million individuals worldwide are affected by the disorder, and the majority of them do not receive adequate treatment. Many of the patients are from impoverished nations, such as Pakistan.
World Schizophrenia Day
Dr. Paul Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss physician, used the term schizophrenia to characterise the condition formerly known as dementia praecox. The National Schizophrenia Foundation established World Schizophrenia Day on 24th May to honour Dr. Philippe Pinel, who worked to offer compassionate care and treatment for the mentally ill.
According to the World Health Organization Schizophrenia is a mental illness that produces psychosis and is linked with significant impairment. It can influence many aspects of life, including personal, familial, social, educational, and vocational functioning.
Signs and Symptoms
Schizophrenia is characterised by a variety of cognitive, behavioural, and emotional issues. Delusions, hallucinations, or confused speech are common signs and symptoms that indicate a reduced capacity to perform. Among the symptoms are:
Delusions: These are incorrect beliefs that are not supported by evidence. For example, you believe you are being attacked or tormented; you have remarkable skill or renown; another person is in love with you, or a catastrophic disaster is imminent. Most persons with schizophrenia have delusions.
Hallucinations: The majority of these involve seeing or hearing things that do not exist. However, a person with schizophrenia experiences everything that a normal person does. Hearing voices is the most common hallucination, however, hallucinations can occur in every sense.
Unorganized thoughts & speech: Chaotic speech indicates disorganised thought. Communication can be hampered, and responses to queries may be partially or entirely unconnected. Speech may occasionally contain the use of nonsensical words that are difficult to understand, known as word salad.
Chaotic Motor Control: This can manifest itself in a variety of ways, ranging from childish silliness to erratic agitation. It's difficult to complete activities when behaviour isn't focused on a goal. Resistance to directions, incorrect or strange posture, a complete lack of reaction, or unnecessary and excessive movement are all examples of behaviour.
NegativeSymptoms: This describes a decreased or absent capacity to perform regularly. The individual may, for example, ignore personal hygiene or look emotionless (i.e., does not make eye contact, does not alter facial expressions, or speaks in a monotone). In addition, the person may lose interest in routine tasks, retreat socially, or be unable to enjoy.
Causes of Schizophrenia
There is no one cause of Schizophrenia, according to research. It's assumed that schizophrenia is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The onset and progression of schizophrenia may be influenced by psychosocial variables. Cannabis usage is linked to an increased chance of developing the disease.
Prevention of Schizophrenia
Although there is no way discovered yet to avoid schizophrenia, following the treatment plan can help prevent relapses and symptoms from worsening. Furthermore, researchers believe that understanding more about schizophrenia risk factors would lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment.
Management of Schizophrenia
Medication, psychoeducation, family interventions, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and psychosocial rehabilitation are all viable treatment choices for patients with schizophrenia (e.g., life skills training). Supported assisted living, supported housing, and supported employment are all important care alternatives for persons with schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia, as well as their family and/or caregivers, need a recovery-oriented approach that gives them agency in treatment decisions.
Because the majority of Pakistan's population lives in rural regions, has poor literacy rates, and is unaware of schizophrenia, those with the disease are assumed to be possessed by a spirit. The Pakistani government should pay attention to the expanding number of persons with schizophrenia and take action by boosting national awareness, allocating resources for appropriate diagnosis, care, and treatment, and fostering social inclusion.