Oct 12 , 2022
Women hold great significance and value in every society as they are not only responsible for running a complete household but also for nurturing future generations.
Women generally encounter several sexual and reproductive health issues throughout their life. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome), PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease), and menopause, are some of the common health problems, that affect women worldwide.
The Causes of Infertility in Women
According to the latest research, PCOS and PCOD are two major causes of infertility in women. Although they sound quite similar in name, but actually they are two completely different issues
PCOS is considered more concerning and dangerous because it is an endocrine disorder and causes major fertility issues in women than PCOD.
PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)
The most common symptom of PCOS is irregular periods. Many women with PCOS also have enlarged ovaries, acne, and male-pattern hair loss. Some women with PCOS have trouble getting pregnant because the cysts interfere with the release of an egg from the ovary.
However, the exact cause of PCOS is unknown. The ovaries of some women with PCOS are unable to produce the normal amount of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone because they do not produce enough insulin, or because the ovaries are resistant to insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps to convert sugar into energy in cells. It also helps to regulate the production of other hormones in the body.
The World Health Organization (WHO) data suggests that approximately 116 million women (3.4%) are affected by PCOS globally.
PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease)
PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease) is a medical condition, in which a woman's ovaries produce immature or partially mature eggs. With time, these immature eggs transform into cysts in the ovary and increases male hormones (androgen), which causes several follicular cysts in the ovary each month. This causes the prevention of the regular release of eggs.
PCOD is far more common in women. About one-third of all menstruating women around the globe have PCOD. PCOS is not that common, but it isn't rare either. (UNICEF)
Almost 10% of women in the world are suffering from PCOD. (Pace hospital )
Typical PCOS and PCOD Symptoms:
The common symptoms of PCOS and PCOD include:
- Menstrual fluctuations, such as irregular periods, very light bleeding, or absent period for months. However, a longer and heavier flow of bleeding is also a symptom of PCOS and PCOD.
- Excessive hair growth (hirsutism) on the face and body.
- Acne-prone or oily skin (on the face, chest, and upper back).
- Increased weight gain, especially around the abdomen (belly).
- Hair loss, male pattern baldness, or hair thinning.
- Ovaries that are large or have many cysts.
- Skin tags; small pieces of excess skin on the neck or armpits.
- Patches of dark or thick skin on the back of the neck, armpits, and under the breasts.
Potential causes of PCOS and PCOD:
The major causes of PCOS and PCOD are difficult to identify, but some of the common considered causes in the world are:
- Excessive androgen production
The ovaries produce abnormal levels of androgen hormone, which causes problems in ovulation and also leads to hirsutism and acne.
- Minor inflammation
White blood cells make substances in response to infection or injury. This response is called low-grade inflammation. Research has shown, that the people with PCOS have a type of long-term, low-grade inflammation that leads polycystic ovaries to produce androgens. This can lead to heart and blood vessel problems.
Genetics plays a prominent role in PCOS. A woman with a family history of PCOS is more likely to get PCOS.
PCOS is surrounded by mystery. Studies and surveys on the subject are limited. There are several myths about PCOS that are untrue like there is no cure for PCOS, a woman with PCOS cannot get pregnant, or it only affects an overweight or obese woman.
However, early diagnosis with losing overall body weight, consuming the right nutrients, and trying meditation, have been effective in treating PCOS and PCOD.